after, even though, if, since, that, what, when, where
Steve Jobs made several important points in his Stanford speech. He talked about how we can only see the patterns in our lives (“connect the dots”) after experiences are over. We need to take steps and make decisions even though we can’t be sure of the results. When his team was developing the Apple computer, he finally realized the full value of his study of calligraphy and proportional fonts.
He said that failure had freed him to try new things. Even though it was painful at the time, it was good for him in the end. He encouraged the Stanford graduates to “do what you love,” since real satisfaction in life depends on doing “what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do.”
He also stated that remembering death helps us live better. If we are conscious we will die, it will help us make decisions based on what really matters to us.
1. Before Steve’s parents could adopt him, they had to promise they would send him to college. Answer C.
A. Steve’s parents were allowed to adopt him even though they promised to send him to college.
B. Steve’s parents promised to adopt him if he would go to college.
C. Steve’s parents could only adopt him if they promised to send him to college.
D. After Steve’s parents adopted him, they promised to send him to college.
C. Explanation: The other answers mean very different things. Answer A) suggests the adoption was in spite of their promise, when in fact it was only allowed because of that promise. B) says they agreed to adopt him if he would go, and D) says they made the promise later-- but in fact it was required before the adoption could be completed.
2. Even after Jobs learned he had cancer, he believed death is necessary to make room for “the new.” Answer B.
A. Jobs thought death had an important purpose until he faced cancer himself.
B. Jobs thought death had an important purpose although he knew he would die soon.
C. After Jobs learned he had cancer, he began to think about death for the first time.
B. Explanation: The key to this answer is to understand that “even after” means that something that was true before continues to be true “after” something happens. Answers A & C say that Jobs only felt that way about death Before (A) or after (C) he learned he had cancer, but he he held the same belief before as well as after the diagnosis.
3. As much as scientists would like to, they have not yet discovered a method to stop the aging process. Answer A.
A. Scientists haven’t discovered a way to stop aging, even though they want to do so.
B. Scientists will discover a way to stop aging because they want to.
C. If scientists really wanted to, they could stop the aging process.
4. As soon as the research team finishes their current project, they want to develop a new approach to publishing data so their colleagues can find the information they need more readily. Answer C.
A. If the research team finishes their current project soon enough, they will publish their results so colleagues can find the information.
B. Because the research team is almost finished their project, they will publish its results.
C. After the research team finishes what they are working on now, they plan to create a better way to make data available to their colleagues.
Explanation: Answer C) correctly restates the same idea as the original sentence. A ) changes the idea in 2 ways: it says they will publish the results of that project, whereas the original said they would start on a new project to find a better way to publish any data-- not just from that project. Besides that, it says that will only happen if they finish “soon enough.” The original didn’t talk about any deadline. B) contains the first error of A), and also says the project is almost finished (which the original statement does not say.)
5. The corporation didn’t announce a date for the release of their new product because they wanted plenty of time to focus on quality. Answer A.
A. Since their focus is on quality, the corporation hasn’t set a release date for their new product.
B. The corporation hasn’t set a public release date for their product because of its quality focus.
C. After the corporation focuses on quality, they will release their product.
6. Which of these has an opposite meaning to the others? Answer D.
A. I enjoy reading, but I need to finish my work before I relax with a good book.
B. Once I have finished my jobs for the day, I like to read.
C. Even though reading is great, work has to come first.
D. Because my priority is reading, other duties must wait.
E. While reading is my favorite pastime, I take care of my responsibilities before indulging in it.
Explanation: A, B, C, & E mean the same thing. They say “duty before pleasure”: work first, then read. D says I will read first, then do other things if I have time-- the reverse of the others.