English negative sentences (unlike questions) follow the same basic word order as affirmative sentences. They start with a noun or pronoun as the subject, and then the verb and the rest of the predicate. (Negative commands, like positive ones, omit the subject.)
The main difference: to make a verb negative, put a helping verb and ‘not’ in front of it. (Negating the verb is the usual way to make a negative sentence.)
See the examples below, then read the explanation.
See also other ways to make sentences negative (besides using 'not') at the bottom of this page.
(In the image box to the right or above, notice that half the quotes do not use 'not.' Those that include it use a contraction: don't, can't, or wouldn't.)
To make these examples as clear as possible, the subject is orange and the predicate is blue.
Mary doesn’t drink coffee.
My brothers don’t speak Chinese.
Jim's best friends don’t live near him.
I didn’t go to the store last week.
Lions do not eat grass.
Esther can’t go tomorrow.
Some people won’t eat spicy foods.
Bill hasn’t learned to type.
You shouldn’t cheat on tests.
'Do' is the most common helping verb for negative sentences. We use it whenever the affirmative sentence does not have a helping verb. (Mary likes ice cream. She does not like cake.)
For the perfect or continuous tenses, use ‘have’ or ‘be’ instead. (We can also use 'be’ without a helping verb. It’s the only verb in English that does not need a helping verb for negatives.)
We can also use a modal verb like ‘can’, ‘will’, 'would', or ‘should’ + not to make a sentence negative.
It’s very common to use contractions in speech and informal writing. In fact, English speakers rarely use ‘do not,’ 'cannot,' or ‘will not’ except when we want to really emphasize ‘not.’
The video below is a funny rap song demonstrating the use of all the negative contractions in English. Several of them (especially daren't, mayn't, shan't) are almost never used, at least in American English. (The rapper has a British accent, but I would guess they are quite uncommon in British English as well.)
(This only shows on computers or tablets. It's too large for a phone screen.)
If you liked that video, you might also like his Positive Contractions, on the English Contractions page (with an explanation and examples as well as the video.)
The following examples show negative statements using the verb ‘be.’ Whether ‘be’ is used as a helping verb or by itself, it does not require ‘do.’
Jenny isn’t fat.
You are not lazy.
Your brothers aren’t lazy either.
Jim and Sue aren’t working today.
They weren’t feeling well.
In fact, they haven’t been feeling well all week.
Larry won’t be able to go.
It is also possible to express a negative meaning without using ‘not’ or a helping verb.
English has a rule that does not allow double negatives. (The thinking is that two negatives make a positive. If “nobody doesn’t like ice cream,” that must mean everybody does like it.)
So if you use negative words (never, neither, no ___, none, no one, nobody, or nothing, etc.) in a sentence, do NOT make the verb negative.
English speakers sometimes violate this rule. Some groups use double negatives routinely, and others use them to not seem 'formal' or stiff when talking to friends.
However, double negatives like "he doesn't take no guff", "I didn't see nothing" or "they don't have no bananas" can make a person sound uneducated if used in the wrong company. It's safer to just practice 'standard' English all the time.
Mary never drinks coffee.
None of Jim's best friends lives near him.*
Lions never eat grass.
Neither of them has been feeling well*.
Nothing is as refreshing as a cold shower on a hot day.
No one (or nobody, or none of the students) in my class studies Latin.
*Note the singular verbs, because ‘none’ is singular. The prepositional phrase ‘of Jim’s friends’ modifies the pronoun ‘none,’ which is the simple subject. The same is true for ‘neither of them.’
Some of these sentences could also be written using a helping verb plus 'not.' Notice the differences:
Mary doesn't ever drink coffee.
Lions don't ever eat grass.
We do not have anyone (or anybody) in my class who studies Latin. (This complex sentence has two clauses, each with a subject and predicate.)
For more information on sentence formation in English (information which applies to negative sentences as well as affirmative), see English Sentence Structure, English Verbs, and Modal Verbs. There are many more examples of contraction use on English Contractions.