Academic Word List Vocabulary C-E 

This Academic Word List Vocabulary C-E continues the Alphabetical Academic Word List Vocabulary,A-B.  Basically, each entry gives the most common form of a word family from the AWL, its part of speech, other common words in the family, and then the newsletter issue that has links to readings and practice activities for it.

Some difficult words also have a brief explanation or a reference to a page mentioned in the yellow box-- the pages with the most explanations, examples, and practice.

If you want to see the newsletters with articles or talks using the words, check the Back Issues page. A list of the AWL words for each reading, as well as related quizzes and other practice is on 

On this page, go to C below, or directly to the D section, or to the E section.

For explanations and practice with many individual AWL words, see also 

  • Printable Crossword Puzzles (CrP--arranged by newsletter, so you’ll know which vocabulary each emphasizes. Get quick practice with many words at once.)

Academic Word List families: C -- in issue(s) #:


  • capable, adj., capability,n.--21 (To practice, check Back Issues for newsletter 21.)
  • capacity, n.-- 21 & 28 (use the Back Issues link above for newsletters 21 & 28. For the words below, use the same Back Issues link, then find the issue number given for each word.)
  • category, n., categorical,adj., categorization,n.-- 8
  • cease, v., ceaseless & unceasing, adjs.-- 23. To cease is to stop doing something. The poet Keats wrote about death (ceasing to exist): “When I have fears that I may cease to be...” 
  • challenge, n. or v., challenging, adj.-- 8
  • channel, n. or v.-- 18
  • chapter, n.-- 6
  • chart, n. or v., uncharted, adj.-- 15
  • chemical, adj.-- 2, 4
  • circumstances, n., circumstantial. adj.-- 12
  • cited, adj. or v.(past), cite, v. citation, n.-- 16, 17 (& see WrW-- yellow box above.)
  • civil, adj.-- 13
  • clarity, n-- 8
  • classical, adj., classic, adj.-- 5, 8
  • clause, n.-- 16, 29 (& see WrW-- yellow box above.)
  • code, n. or v., coded, adj., decode, v.-- 15
  • coherence, n., coherent, adj., coherently, adv.-- 16
  • coincide, v., coincidence, n., coincidental, adj.-- 23. When two events coincide, they happen at the same time. (Two events can also overlap, with the second one starting before the first is finished. In that case they do not coincide completely.)  A coincidence is two unlikely things happening together, apparently by chance or luck rather than by planning. “It was pure coincidence that she won the lottery on her birthday.” 
  • collapse, n. or v., collapsing, adj.-- 15
  • colleague, n.-- 4, 8 (& see TC-- yellow box above.)
  • commence, v., commencement, n.-- 3, 4
  • comments, n. comment, v., commentary, n.-- 8
  • commission, n. (or v.), commissioner-- 11
  • commitment, n., commit, committed-- 9
  • commodity, n.-- 21
  • communication, n., communicate, v., communicative, adj. uncommunicative, adj., communicable, adj.--  2, 6, 8
  • community, n. or adj.-- 12
  • compatible, adj. (see incompatible)-- 13
  • compensation, n., compensate, v.-- 12
  • complex, adj., complexity, adj.-- 7
  • components, n.-- 4
  • compound, n. or verb, compounded, adj.-- 2
  • comprehensive, adj., comprehensively, adv.-- 14
  • comprise, v.-- 21
  • computer, n.2, 4, 8
  • conceived, v.(past) or adj., conceive, v., (in)conceivable, adj.-- 1 (& see SH-- yellow box above.)
  • concentration, n., concentrate, v., concentrated, adj.-- 5, 8
  • concept, n., conceptual, adj.-- 4, 8
  • conclusion, n., conclude, v., conclusive, adj.  conclusively, adv., inconclusive, adj.-- 1, 2
  • concurrent, adj., concurrently, adv.-- 21
  • conduct, n. or v.-- 2
  • conference, n.-confer,v.- 8
  • confined, adj. or v.(past), confine, v., confinement, n., confines, n., confining, adj.-- 21
  • confirmed, adj. or v. (past), confirm, v., confirmation, n.-- 22, 27
  • conflict, n. or v., conflicting, adj.-- 6, 9
  • conformity, n., conform, conformist-- 12
  • consent, n. or v., consenting, adj.-- 31
  • consequences, n., consequential, consequently-- 12
  • considerable, adj., considerably, adv., (consider, v., consideration, n.)-- 15
  • consistent, adj., consistently, adv., consist (of), v., consistency, n.-- 5
  • constant, adj., constantly, adv.-- 20
  • constitution, n., constitutional, adj.-- 16
  • constraints, n., constrain, v.-- 3
  • construction, n., construct,v, constructive, adj.-- 12
  • consultation, n., consult, v., consulting, adj., consultant, n.-- 1
  • consumer, n., consume,v., consumption,n.-- 5
  • contact, n. or v.-- 2
  • contemporary, adj. or n.-- 21
  • context, n. contextual-- 8,30 (see Back Issues)
  • contract, n. or v., contractor, contractual-- 12
  • contradiction, n., contradict, v., contradictory, adj.-- 17
  • contrary, adj. or n.--20
  • contrast, n. or v., contrasting, adj.-- 13
  • contribution, n., contribute, contributors-- 4 (& see TC-- yellow box above.)
  • controversy, n., controversial, adj.-- 17. An issue or topic of conversation is controversial when people have strong and opposing opinions about it. There is no controversy about the idea that people ought to preserve the earth for future generations. However, specific proposals for how to protect or restore the environment are often very controversial. 
  • convention, n., (un)conventional, convene-- 7. Conventional means the usual, accepted way that most people do things. If someone is ‘unconventional,’ they often act in odd or unexpected ways. 
  • conversely, adv., converse, adj.-- 18
  • convert, v. or n.-- 17
  • convinced, adj., convince,v., convincing,  adj-- 2
  • cooperative, adj., cooperate, v., cooperation, n.-- 4 (& see TC-- yellow box above.)
  • coordination, n, coordinate, v., coordinated, adj.-- 4 (& see TC-- yellow box above.)
  • core, n. or adj.-- 16
  • corporate, adj., corporation-- 4
  • corresponding, adj., correspond, v., correspondence, n.-- 23 (& see WrW-- yellow box above.)
  • couple, n.-- 6, 8 (two, or two people together. Less commonly it can be a verb meaning to connect.)
  • create, v, creative, adj.,creatively, adv.,creativity, n., creation, n.-- 1, 4, 6, 
  • credit, n. or v., creditable, adj., creditor, n.-- 11
  • criteria, n. (pl.), criterion, (sing.)-- 3, 5
  • crucial, adj., crucially, adv.-- 8
  • cultural, adj., culture, n.-- 1, 2, 6
  • currency, n.-- 12
  • cycle, n. or v., cyclical, adv.-- 14

Academic Word List Vocabulary: D

  • data, n.-- 2
  • debate, n. or v., debatable, adj.-- 16
  • decade, n.-- 8
  • decline, v. or n., declining, adj.-- 6 (& see Soc-- yellow box above.)
  • deduction, n., deduce,v., deduct, v., deductible, adj.-- 1, 2 (& see SH-- yellow box above.)
  • definite, adj., indefinite, adj., (in)definitely, adv.-- 17
  • definition, n., define-- 2
  • demonstrate, v., demonstration,n., demonstrable, adj.-- 7
  • denote, v., denotation, n.-- 18. To denote is to indicate or show the meaning of something.
  • deny, v., denial, n., (un)deniable, adj., undeniably, adv.-- 6 (& see WrW-- yellow box above.)
  • depression, n., depress, v., depressed, adj.-- 23, Psychology Vocabulary
  • derived, v.(past) or adj., derive, v. derivation, n., derivative, adj.-- 20
  • design, v. or n., designer, n.-- 2, 4, 7, 8
  • despite, prep.-- 15 
  • detected, v. (past) or adj., detect, v., detective, n.-- 1 (& see SH-- yellow box above.)
  • deviation, n., deviate, v., deviant, adj. or n.-- 17. Deviation means getting off course or leaving the usual or right way of doing things.  ‘Deviant’ is not acceptable; as a noun it's used for people considered undesirable social misfits.) 
  • devices, n.-- 4, 6, 7, 8 (& see TC-- yellow box above.)
  • devoted, adj. or v.(past), devote,v., devotion, n.-- 18. Someone who is ‘devoted’ is completely dedicated to a cause or to caring for a person. We may devote a lot of time to a hobby, a passion, or even to our job. Devotion is a synonym of dedication, affection, or love. 
  • differentiation, n., differentiate, v.-- 23
  • dimension, n., three-dimensional (3-D), adj.-- 12. Dimension has several meanings, but all start from the ‘three dimensions’ of height, width, or depth. A flat surface has only two dimensions; a cube adds volume or depth, so it is three-dimensional. When we want to talk about a different angle or way of looking at something we may discuss ‘another dimension of the problem...’ 
  • diminished, adj. or v. (past), diminish, v., diminishing, adj.-- 17 (& see Soc-- yellow box above.)
  • discretion, n., discrete, adj., discretely, adv.-- 24
  • discrimination, n., discriminate, v., discriminatory, adj.-- 16
  • disintegration, n., disintegrate, v. (see integration)-- 16
  • displacement, n., displace, v., displaced, adj.-- 17
  • display, v. or n.-- 7
  • disposal, n., dispose, v., disposable, adj.-- 18
  • disproportionately, adv.-- see proportion-- 16
  • distinction, n., distinguish, v., distinct, adj., distinctly, adv., distinctive, adj., distinctively, adv.-- 6, 8 (& see WrW-- yellow box above.)
  • distortion, n., distort, v., distorted, adj.-- 16
  • distribution, n., distribute, v.-- 19, 28
  • diversity, n., diverse, adj.-- 14
  • document, n. or v.-- 4
  • domain, n.-- 15
  • domestic, adj., (or n.), domesticate, v., (un)domesticated, adj.-- 15
  • dominant, adj., dominate, v.,domination,n., dominance,n.-- 5
  • draft, v. or n., redraft, v.-- 16 (& see WrW-- yellow box above.)
  • dramatic, adj., drama,n., dramatically, adv.-- 4
  • duration, n.-- 21. Duration is the length of time something lasts. “Duration’ can also be used to mean ‘the time remaining,’ as in “Please turn off your cell phones for the duration of the class. It's important that you all hear what Dr. Brown has for us.” 
  • dynamic, adj., dynamically, adv.-- 12. Something that’s dynamic is constantly moving & changing. A dynamic person is energetic and enthusiastic.  

AWL Vocabulary: E

  • economic, adj., economy,n., economize,v., economics (the field), n.-- 11, 13
  • edition, n., edit, editor-- 6
  • elements, n., elemental, adj.-- 8
  • elimination, n., eliminate, v.-- 24
  • emerged, v., emerging, adj.-- 5
  • emphasis, n. emphasize, v., emphatic, adj.-- 1
  • empirical, adj., empirically, adv.-- 18. Empirical knowledge is practical, applied knowledge as compared to abstract theory. 
  • enable, v.-- 1, 2
  • encountered, v., encounter (n. or v.)-- 4, 7, 25. To encounter can be to find, to meet, to come across-- all without planning or looking for someone or something. 
  • energy, n., energetic, adj.-- 3, 8
  • enforcement, n., enforce, v., enforceable, adj.-- 16
  • enhanced, adj., enhance, v.,enhancement, n.-- 18
  • enormous, adj.-- 5
  • ensure, v.-- 14
  • entities, n.-- 20. Entities are organizations or beings with an individual existence. They are most commonly discussed in legal or tax documents.
  • environment, n., environmental, adj.-- 8, 24
  • equation, n., equate, v.-- 9
  • equipment, n., equip, v.-- 7 (& see TC-- yellow box above.)
  • equivalent, adj.-- 10
  • erosion, n., erode, v., eroded, adj.-- 20
  • error, n., err, v., erroneous, adj--9
  • established, v. or adj., establishment, n.-- 3
  • estate, n.-- 11
  • estimated, v. or adj., estimate,v., estimation,n.-- 12, 26
  • ethical, adj., ethically, adv., ethics, n.-- 15
  • ethnic, adj., ethnicity, n.-- 18
  • evaluation, n., evaluate,v.-- 2
  • eventually, adv., eventual-- 3, 8
  • evidence, n; evident-- 1, 7
  • evolution, n., evolve, v., evolving, adv.-- 9 (& see Soc-- yellow box above.)
  • exceed, v., exceedingly, adv., excess, n., excessive, adj. excessively, adv.-- 14
  • excluded, adj., exclude,v., exclusion,n., exclusive, adj. exclusively, adv.-- 12. To exclude is to leave out (the opposite of include.) A policy of exclusion would deliberately leave many people out. An exclusive resort only accepts certain (usually wealthy) people. 
  • exhibit, n. or v; exhibition,n.-- 7
  • expansion, n., expand,v., expansive, adj.-- 3 (& see Soc-- yellow box above.)
  • expert, n. or adj., expertise,n.-- 1, 6, 7, 8
  • explicit, adj., explicitly, adv.-- 16 (& see WrW-- yellow box above.)
  • exploitation, n., exploit, v.,exploitative, adj.-- 17. Exploitation is the misuse or overuse of people or resources.
  • export, v. or n.-- 7
  • exposure, n., expose, v.-- 2, 25
  • external, adj., externally, adv.-- 4
  • extract, v., extraction,n.-- 18. To extract is to pull out of or remove from. We extract coal, minerals, and oil, from the earth]. An extract is a concentrated liquid made from an herb. 

For F-M, see Academic Word List Vocabulary F-M.

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