Academic Word List Vocabulary N-R

This Academic Vocabulary Word List N-R continues listing AWL words, their parts of speech, word family members, and newsletter issues with practice information. See Alphabetical Academic Word List Vocabulary A-B for the start of the list and more information on how to use it. 

If you are interested in studying a specific word, note the newsletter number and go to the appropriate page of the Academic Vocabulary Word Lists to find which readings include it, and which pages practice it.

  • Issues 1-5 are on that first page, 
  • issues 6-10 are on Academic Vocabulary Word List 2 

Go directly to the P section, or to R.

For explanations and practice with many individual AWL words, see also 

  • Printable Crossword Puzzles (CrP--arranged by newsletter, so you’ll know which vocabulary each emphasizes. Get quick practice with many words at once.)

Academic Word List families: N-O -- in issue(s) #:

  • negative, adj., negatively, adv.-- 6, 26  (to practice, look for newsletter 6 & 26 in Back Issues.)
  • network, n.or v., networking, n. or adj.-- 8 (see the link above to find newsletter 8 and those below.)
  • neutral, adj., neutrality, n.-- 17
  • nevertheless, adv.-- 20
  • nonetheless, adv.-- 16
  • normal, adj., normally, adv.-- 5
  • norms (or norm), n., normative, adj.,-- 5, 27
  • notion, n.-- 4
  • notwithstanding, adv.-- 21 
  • nuclear, adj.-- 19
  • objective, adj. or n., objectively, adv. objectivity, n.-- 3
  • obtained, v., obtainable,adj.-- 2
  • obvious, adj., obviously, adv.- 8
  • occupational, ad., occupation, n., occupy, v., occupied, adj-- 19
  • occur, v., occurrence, n.-- 2
  • odd, adj., oddly, adv.,odds, n., oddness, n.-- 10
  • offset, v.-- 14
  • ongoing, adj.-- 9
  • option, n., optional, adj. opt, v.-- 7, 25
  • orientation, n., orient, v. or n., oriental, adj.-- 16. Orientation can be a group introduction to a new job or school. (It comes from orient-- the east, and ‘to orient oneself’-- to figure out the direction one is facing.) 

        It can also mean a person or group’s outlook or preferences. (The most common use, “sexual orientation,” refers to whether a person considers him or herself to be heterosexual or homosexual.)

  • outcomes, n.-- 10
  • output, n. or v.-- 8
  • overall, adj.-- 18
  • overestimate, v. or n. (see estimate)-- 12
  • overlap, v. or n., overlapping, adj.-- 23. To overlap is to partly cover or coincide, in space or time. Roof tiles overlap each other. If something happens before something else has finished, the 2 events overlap; when people have shared hobbies, their interests overlap. 
  • overseas, n.-- 20

AWL Vocabulary P-Q

  • panel, n. or adj.-- 17
  • paradigm, n.-- 21, 25
  • paragraph,n.-- 6
  • parallel, adj. n., or v., parallelism, n.-- 11.  Parallel lines are lines that run in the same direction at a fixed distance from each other, so that they never meet (like railroad tracks). Parallel thoughts or statements thus have similar form but different content. 
  • parameters, n.-- 13
  • participation, n., participate,v., participants, n.-- 9,10, 25
  • partnership, n., partner, n. or v.-- 4
  • passive, adj., passively, adv.-- 20
  • perceived, v., perception,n., perceptible, adj.-- 7
  • percent, n., percentage, n.-- 7,9
  • period, n., periodic, adj., periodically, adv., periodical, n.-- 4, 5, 7, 8
  • persistent, adj., persist, v.,persistence,n.-- 5, 26. To persist is to keep doing something until it’s done, so persistence is not giving up easily. A persistent person often succeeds because he or she won’t quit. 
  • perspective, n-- 7
  • phase, n.-- 23. A phase is a stage in development; something that changes over time. We talk about the “toddler phase” or “the phases of the moon” from new moon to full. 
  • phenomenon, n. (pl: phenomena), phenomenal, adj.-- 15, 24. A phenomenon is a natural event or occurrence. 
  • philosophy, n., philosophical, adj. philosopher,n., philosophize, v.-- 5
  • physical, adj., physically,adv.-- 5, 8, 9
  • policy, n. -- 11
  • portion, n.-- 23. A portion is a part of something, especially the part of land or inheritance that will belong to a particular person or group. Sometimes we speak of the normal amount of food one person can eat at a meal as a portion (or a serving.) “Give him an extra portion, he’s a growing boy.” 
  • posed, v. (past); pose, n. or v.-- 15
  • positive, adj., positively, adv.-- 6, 26
  • potential, adj. or n., potentially, adv.-- 2
  • practitioners, n. (practice, v. or n.)-- 23, 33 (Back Issues)
  • preceding, adj., precedent, n. precede, v., unprecedented, adj.-- 12. Preceding means what came before. A precedent is a first event that sets an example for what follows, so unprecedented means that nothing like this has happened before. 
  • precise, adj., precision, precisely-- 5
  • predict, v., predictable, adj.predictably, adv., prediction, n., predictors,n, unpredictable, adj.-- 9
  • predominantly, adv., predominant, adj, predominance, n.-- 15
  • preliminary, adj.-- 16
  • premium, n.-- 24
  • presumption, n., presume, v., presumably, adv.-- 10
  • previous, adj., previously, adv.-- 3
  • primary, adj. (or n.-- politics), primarily, adv.-- 10
  • prime, adj. or n.-- 6 (& see WrW-- yellow box above)
  • principal, adj. or n.-- 13
  • principle, n., principled, adj., unprincipled, adj.-- 10
  • prior, adj.-- 16
  • priority, n., prioritize, v.-- 3
  • procedure, n, procedural, adj., proceed, v.-- 1
  • process, n. or v., processed, adj.-- 1, 2, 7
  • professional, adj. or n., profession, n.-- 1
  • prohibited, adj., prohibitive, adj.,prohibit, v., prohibition, n.-- 16, 29.  Prohibited means forbidden. Some religions prohibit eating pork; all prohibit murder. In the U.S., there was a period in the 1920s when drinking alcohol was forbidden. The period is called Prohibition (though the word does not always apply to drinking.) We use ‘prohibitive’ of something so expensive or difficult that it is “out of the question”—it might just as well be forbidden, because it’s not a realistic option. 
  • project, n. or v.-- 4, 7, 8
  • promote, v., promotion,n.,  promotional, adj.-- 10
  • proportion, n., proportional, adj. proportionally, adv.-- 4
  • prospect, n. or v., prospective, adj.-- 22
  • protocol, n.-- 22
  • psychology, n., psychological, adj., psychologist, n.-- 7, 9, Psychology Vocabulary
  • publication, n.-- 4
  • published, v.(past) or adj., publish, v.,publishing, adj., publisher, n.-- 4, 9
  • purchase, n. or v.-- 13, 15
  • pursue, v., pursuit- 12
  • qualitative, adj., qualitatively, adv.,quality, n.-- 7
  • quotation,n., quote, v. or n, quotable, adj.-- 9

AWL Vocabulary R

  • radical, adj. (or n.), radically, adv.-- 17
  • random, adj., randomly, adv.-- 9
  • range, n. or v., ranging, adj.-- 6 (& see WrW-- yellow box above)
  • ratio, n.-- 15, 27. A ratio is the relationship between two things, comparing their proportions in size or numbers. You can talk about the ratio of soldiers to civilians in a country (the proportion of the population that is in the military compared to those who are not) or the ratio of literate people to illiterates. 
  • rational, adj, rationally.adv.-- 5
  • reaction, n., react, v., reactive, adj., reactor, n.-- 1, 8, 9
  • reconstruction, n.-- see construction-- 16
  • recovery, n., recover, v.-- 14
  • redraft, v.-- see draft-- 16
  • refine, v., refined, adj., refinement, n.-- 4
  • regime, n.-- 17. A regime is a government (usually an undemocratic one), but it can also be a set of diet or lifestyle rules. 
  • region, n., regional, adj.,regionally, adv.-- 9
  • registered, v.(past) or adj., register,v., registration, n.-- 10
  • regulations, n., regulate, v., regulatory, adj.-- 9
  • reinforced, adj. or v.(past), reinforce, v., reinforcements, n.-- 18
  • rejected, adj. or v. (past), rejection, n.-- 3,4
  • relaxed, adj. or v. (past), relax, v., relaxation, n.-- 22
  • release, v. or n.-- 4, 24
  • relevant, adj., relevance,n., irrelevant, adj., irrelevance,n.-- 10
  • reliance, n.. rely,v., reliable,adj. reliably,adv.-- 8
  • reluctant, adj., reluctantly, adv., reluctance, n.-- 22, 25. Reluctance means a person would prefer not to do something. It is not refusing or saying no, but doing something without enthusiasm.
  • remove, v., removal, n.-- 13
  • required, v.(past) or adj., requirement, n.-- 2, 9
  • research, n. or v., researchers,n.-- 2, 8, 9, 26
  • resident, n., residential, adj., reside, v.-- 19
  • resolution, n., resolve, v. or n.-- 3
  • resources, n., resourceful, adj.-- 3
  • response, n., respond, v. responsive, adj., unresponsive, adj.-- 8
  • restore, v. restoration, n.,restored, adj.-- 10
  • restraint(s), n., restrain, v.. restrained, adj.-- 21
  • restricted, adj. or v., restrictive-- 6 (& see WrW-- yellow box above)
  • retained, v.(past), retaining, adj., retention, n.-- 22, 27
  • revealed, v.(past) or adj., revelation, n.-- 1 (& see SH-- yellow box above)
  • revenue, n.-- 14
  • reverse, v.,n.,or adj., reversal, n., reversible, adj., irreversible, adj.-- 14, 27
  • revision,n., revise, v.-- 16
  • revolution, n., revolt, n.,revolve, v., revolutionize, v., revolutionary, adj.-- 2
  • rigid, adj., rigidly, adv.-- 22. Rigid means inflexible and unbending. 
  • role, n.-- 6 (& see WrW-- yellow box above)
  • route, n. or v-- 7

For S-Z see Academic Word List Vocabulary S-Z..

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